Monday, May 24, 2010

Adjectuve Clause, Conditional sentence , Passive Voice, and Degree of Comparison

1. Adjective clause

An adjective clause—also called an adjectival clause—will meet three requirements. First, it will contain a subject and verb. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering questions such as: What kind? How many? or Which one?

The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:

  • Relative Pronoun [or Relative Adverb] + Subject + Verb = Dependent Clause
  • Relative Pronoun [Functioning as Subject] + Verb = Dependent Clause

Examples include:

Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie

Word Class


Relative Pronoun






Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie

Word Class


Relative Adverb





Can stand

That bounced onto the kitchen floor

Word Class


Relative Pronoun




Who hiccuped for seven hours afterward

Word Class


Relative Pronoun




2. Conditional Sentences

English conditional sentences can be divided into the two broad classes of factual/predictive and hypothetical (counterfactual), depending on the form of the verb in the condition (protasis). The terms "factual" and "counterfactual" broadly correspond to the linguistic modalities called realis and irrealis.

Factual/predictive conditions

In these constructions, the condition clause expresses a condition the truth of which is unverified. The verb in the condition clause is in the past tense (with a past tense interpretation) or in the present tense (with a present or future tense interpretation). The result clause can be in the past, present, or future. Generally, conditional sentences of this group are in two groups, the "zero conditional" and the potential or indicative conditional, often called "first conditional" or "conditional 1". This class includes universal statements (both clauses in the present, or both clauses in the past) and predictions.

The "zero" conditional is formed with both clauses in the present tense. This construction is similar across many languages. It is used to express a certainty, a universal statement, a law of science, etc.:

If you heat water to 100 degrees celsius, it boils.

If you don't eat for a long time, you become hungry.

If the sea is stormy, the waves are high.

It is different from true conditionals because the introductory "if" can be replaced by "when" or "whenever" (e.g., "When you heat water..."), which cannot be done for true conditionals.

The potential or indicative conditional, often referred to as the "first conditional" or "conditional 1", is used more generally to express a hypothetical condition that is potentially true, but not yet verified. The conditional clause is in the present or past tense and refers to a state or event in the past. The result can be in the past, present, or future. Some examples with the condition clause in the past tense:

If she took that flight yesterday, she arrived at 10pm.

If she took that flight yesterday, she is somewhere in town today.

If she took that flight yesterday, we'll see her tomorrow.

A condition clause (protasis) in the present tense refers to a future event, a current event which may be true or untrue, or an event which could be verified in the future. The result can be in the past, present, or future:

If it's raining here now, then it was raining on the West Coast this morning.

If it's raining now, then your laundry is getting wet.

If it's raining now, there will be mushrooms to pick next week.

If it rains this afternoon, then yesterday's weather forecast was wrong.

If it rains this afternoon, your garden party is doomed.

If it rains this afternoon, everybody will stay home.

If I become President, I'll lower taxes.

Certain modal auxiliary verbs (mainly will, may, might, and could) are not usually used in the condition clause (protasis) in English:

*If it will rain this afternoon, …

*If it may have rained yesterday, …

There are exceptions, however, in which will is used exactly as in the first example, namely when the action in the if clause takes place after that in the main clause:

(The weather forecast says it's going to rain.) Well, if it will rain, we must take umbrellas.

If aspirins will cure it, I'll [I will] take a couple tonight instead of this horrible medicine.[1]

Other situations in which will can be used in an if clause include when will is not being used as an auxiliary verb, in other words when it is being used modally to express willingness, persistence, or a wish:

If you'll [you will] just hold the door open for me a moment, I can take this table out to the kitchen.

If you will keep all the windows shut, of course you'll get headaches.

If you will excuse me, I think I will slip into something more comfortable.[2][3]

In colloquial English, the imperative is sometimes used to form a conditional sentence: e.g. "go eastwards a mile and you'll see it" means "if you go eastwards a mile, you will see it".

Construction of conditional sentences in English

In English, there are three coinditional sentence formulas. They are:

The first formula indicates the possible outcome of an event that is likely to occur: If + Present Simple/Present Progressive + Present Simple/Present Progressive/Future Simple/Future Progressive/Imperative

The second formula indicates the possible outcome of an event that is less likely to occur:

If + Present Perfect/Present Perfect Progressive/Preterite/Past Continuous + Conditional Present/Conditional Present Progressive

(In British and Canadian English: If + Imperfect Subjunctive + Conditional Present/Conditional Present Progressive)

The third formula indicates the possible outcome of an event that did not occur, and is therefore a missed opportunity: If + Pluperfect/Pluperfect Progressive + Conditional Perfect/Conditional Perfect Progressive

It is possible to reverse the order of the clauses, however, the protasis must always follow the word "If" (Eg. "If + I miss the bus, + I will be late for school" can be adjusted to: "I will be late for school + if + I miss the bus.)

3. Passive Voice

Kalimat pasif pokok kalimat dikenai oleh suatu pekerjaan, coba bandingkan :

Kalimat aktif : He buys a book = Ia membeli sebuah buku

Kalimat pasif : A book is bought by him = Sebuah buku dibeli olehnya

Kalimat pasif ini bisa dibayangkan awalan di pada bahasa Indonesia umpama : merobek – dirobek .

Jadi dilihat, dibeli adalah menunjukkan pasif dalam kalimat tersebut

Rumus pembuatan kalimat pasif ialah : to be + P2

ATAU to be + verb pada kolom 3

Object kalimat aktif menjadi subject kalimat pasif

Subject kalimat aktif menjadi object kalimat pasif yang didahului by :

The girl beats the cat = Gadis itu memukul kucing itu

The cat is beaten by the girl = Kucing itu dipukul gadis itu

Lebih jelas lagi langsung pada kata kerja dalam kolom 3 sesudah to be ; jadi :

To be bought = dibeli to be heard = didengar

4. Degree of Comparison

Degree of Comparison = Tingkat Perbandingan

Adjective (kata sifat) dan Adverb (kata keterangan) mempunyai tiga tingkat, yaitu :

+ Positive Degree ( tingkat biasa )

+ Comparative ( tingkat lebih / perbandingan )

+ Superlative ( tingkat paling )

à Kata – kata yang terdiri dari satu suku kata ditambah er untuk comparative dan est untuk

Superlative :

Positive Comparative Superlative

Long Longer Longest

panjang lebih panjang paling panjang

Young Younger Youngest

muda lebih muda paling muda

Large Larger Largest

luas lebih luas paling luas

Deep Deeper Deepest

dalam lebih dalam paling dalam

Fine Finer Finest

baik lebih baik paling baik

à kata – kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang diakhiri

“ some” - “ow” - “le” – “ r” – “y” ditambah er untuk comparative dan est untuk superlative :

Positive Comparative Superlative

Handsome Hansdomer Handsomest

tampan lebih tampan paling tampan

Wholesome Wholesomer Wholesomest

sehat lebih sehat paling sehat

Narrow Narrower Narrowest

sempit lebih sempit paling sempit

Noble Nobler Noblest

mulia lebih mulia paling mulia

Clever Cleverer Cleverest

pandai lebih pandai paling pandai

Happy Happier Happiest

bahagia lebih bahagia paling bahagia

à Kata – kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata atau lebih ditambah more untuk comparative dan most untuk superlative :

Positive Comparative Superlative

Usefull More useful Most useful

berguna lebih berguna paling berguna

Famous More famous Most famous

terkenal lebih terkenal paling terkenal

interesting More interesting Most interesting

menarik lebih menarik paling menarik

Necessary More Necessary Most Necessary

penting lebih penting paling penting

è Irregular - Degrees of Comparison

Tingkat perbandingan yang tidak beraturan.



Well better --- best

baik lebih baik --- paling baik


Ill worse --- worst

buruk lebih jelek --- paling jelek




banyak More --- most

Much lebih banyak --- terbanyak


Rumus Pemakaiannya :

as + { positive } + as

This box is as big as that one = Buku ini sebesar yang itu.

You are as tall as I am = Kamu setinggi saya.

Less + { positive } + than = not so + { positive } + as

He is less syupid than I thought =

He is not so stupid as I thought he was Ia tidak sebodoh yang saya kira

Your house is less near than I thought = Your is not so near as I thought = Rumahmu tidak housesedekat yang saya duga.

{ Comparative } + than - - - > membandingkan antara dua

He work more slowly than she does = Ia bekerja lebih lambat dari pada dia.

The first Problem is more difficult than the second = Soal pertama lebih susah dari pada yang kedua

You are taller than I am = Kamu lebih tinggi dari pada saya

He works harder than you do = Ia bekerja lebih berat daripada kamu

The + superlative - - - > memperbandingkan antara tiga atau lebih

He is the cleverest student in his class = Ia pelajar yang terpandai dikelasnya

Kirana is the most beautiful student in her class = Kirana pelajar yang tercantik dikelasnya.

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